Wisdom is commonly thought of as ancestral and transmitted orally: it is thought that comes from experience, formed from generation to generation, and which can serve as a guide to the decisions of the young. This connotation of passing on, or inheritance, can be found in Turiya Magdalela’s work, with her reinterpretation-tribute to a poem by her mother. Wisdom in meditation, in healing, and in the transmission of ancestral medicinal techniques are three themes that infuse the work of Lungiswa Gqunta. However, in Michael Armitage’s work, the notion of wisdom and transmission emerges from the angle of the survival of religious ritual.

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